Long-running INSERT

On one of the databases I’m looking after (11.2.0.4, Solaris, non-RAC), several different INSERT statements (all into tablespaces with manually managed segments) suffer from occasional hiccups. The symptoms are always the same: in one of the sessions, the INSERT gets stuck doing lots of single-block I/O against one of the indexes on the inserted table, and if other sessions are running similar INSERTs, they hang on enq: TX – index contention. The situation can last just a few seconds, but sometimes it’s much longer than this (several minutes), in which case the impact on the application is quite serious.

Continue reading “Long-running INSERT”

Log buffer space

Introduction

Log buffer space is a simple, yet frequently misunderstood wait event. The main reason for that is probably its name. It sounds as if it points immediately to the answer: if space in the log buffer is the issue, then increasing it surely should resolve it. Well, unfortunately even though log buffer space is simple, it’s not that simple.
Continue reading “Log buffer space”

Lies, damned lies and non production-like performance testing

Chasing cost efficiency, business often cuts back on money spent on UAT boxes used for performance testing. More often than not, this is a bad-decision, because the only thing worse than not having a UAT environment is having a UAT environment that is nothing like production. It gives a false sense of security while exposing your application to all sorts of nasty surprises. In this post I tried to summarize a few typical configuration differences between UAT and production which can affect performance test results in a major way.
Continue reading “Lies, damned lies and non production-like performance testing”

Querying trace files

SQL trace file provide the highest level of detail possible about SQL execution. The problem with that information is converting it to a convenient format for further analysis. One very good solution is parsetrc tool by Kyle Hailey written in Perl. It gives high-resolution histograms, I/O transfer rates as a function of time, and other very useful info. Unfortunately, I myself am not a Perl expert, so it’s a bit difficult for me to customize this tool when I need something slightly different from defaults (e.g. change histogram resolution, look at events not hardcoded into the script etc.). Another limitation is that since the tool is external to the database, you can’t join the data anything else (like ASH queries). So I found another solution for raw trace file analysis: external tables + regexp queries.

Continue reading “Querying trace files”

Efficiency-based SQL tuning

Introduction

In order to tune a query, you need to know two things:
– can it be tuned, and if yes, then by how much
– which part of the query (which operation, or which data object) is most promising from the tuning point of view.

Currently existing tuning methods don’t really answer these questions. You either focus on the most expensive operation(s), and hope that you can eliminate them (or transform them into something less cosly), or you focus on the ones where you see a large discrepancy between actual rowcounts and optimizer predictions (cardinality feedback tuning). Either way, you can’t be sure that you’ve set your priorities right. It could well be the case that the cost of the most expensive operation cannot be reduced by much, but you can win back enough performance elsewhere. With the cardinality feedback tuning, you also don’t have any guarantee that improving accuracy of optimizer estimates would eventually transform into acceptable level of performance.

Of course, if the plan only contains a few operations, this is not a big issue, and after a few trials you will usually get to the bottom of the problem. However, when dealing with very complex plans, hundreds operations long, this is not really an option. When dealing with such plans a few months back, I developed for myself a simple tuning method that allows to evaluate with high accuracy potential tuning benefits of plan operations, using rowsource stats and optimizer as input. In this post, I’m sharing this method, as well as a script that implements it.

Continue reading “Efficiency-based SQL tuning”

AWR report: load profile

Introduction

“Load profile” section of the AWR report contains some extremely useful information, and yet it is very often overlooked (often in favor of instance efficiency percentages, which is easier to read but much more likely to mislead).  I decided to make some sort of a short guide for it, describing how different statistics in it can be used to better understand performance of a database.

Continue reading “AWR report: load profile”